I am going to post in this thread my experiences in getting my Desktop (Debian) machine running Armory in watch-only mode, and coupling that with an offline Raspberry Pi (which holds my private keys) for signing the transactions previously made in watch-only mode.
I actually compiled Armory from source directly on my Pi. This guide is probably more for the bitcoin 'power user', as to run Armory online, and broadcast the signed transactions, you need to have a bitcoin full node running (bitcoind).
- Online machine - running a full node (bitcoind)
- Raspberry Pi - I used an old Pi 1 Model B with just 512Mb memory, and 2 USB slots.
- 2x USB thumb-drives. One for wallet backups, the other for transferring unsigned tx's to the rPi, and signed tx's back to the Desktop.
- Armory 0.96.4 for the Raspberry Pi 1, Model B (512Mb RAM, 2xUSB) (compiled from github sourcecode on the Pi itself!)
- Using the Pi as an offline complement to a Debian Desktop "watch-only" Armory install.
- Desktop Debian Armory watch-only talks to my full node, bitcoind, which is also on the Debian desktop.
I'll post the guide in digestible sections...
I should begin by saying I installed source code from git, and got Armory to build the DB on my desktop initially, WITHOUT creating a wallet.. (This allowed me to debug what was going on a little!)
- I am using Armory 0.96.4
- Desktop: Debian 9, Dual-Core, 2Gb Memory, 2Gb Swap.
- Pi : Pi 1, Model B (512Mb RAM, 2x USB, Ethernet)
Go to Bitcoin.org, select Armory..
It leads to a Download from Git: https://github.com/goatpig/BitcoinArmory/releases
Followed the procedure for Linux Debian verify code, compile, install, all straight-forward..
Began by running bitcoind, and telling Armory where to find it. This is the command I used, obviously it was all on one line and didn't include the arrows/explanations!:
python ArmoryQt.py \ --satoshi-datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks \ # <-----(where my bitcoind blocks live) --datadir=/ArmoryDataDi \ # <-----(this is instead of ~/.armory) --dbdir=/ArmoryDataDidatabases # <-------(again, non std. place used for Armory's databases.. my choice.)
So, on the Desktop, after the initial "build databases"
(NB the initial "Build Databases" took about 1.5h and my two CPUs were maxed the whole time, Temps up to 62C. Not ideal; Im not in a rush!)
I then wanted to import a watch-only wallet.
Before I did this, I took a full backup of the Armory data dir:
(or ~/.armory in a default installation).
I'd hate to have to make Armory do another full sync with the bitcoind node!
Next step: offline wallet (with Private Keys) is on a Raspberry Pi.
I downloaded the source and managed to compile it on the pi itself! :)
Though there were some gymnastics needed to setup the Pi.
My Pi is running Raspbian based on Wheezy.. quite old!
I did the following on the Pi:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade (<---took about an hour!) apt-get install autotools-dev apt-get install autoconf
Then I followed the instructions exactly as I had done for my Debian Desktop machine, EXCEPT:
I had to increase the Pi's swap space. I upped it from 100Mb to 400Mb.
The compilation took 7 hours, and my poor SD card got a thrashing.
But after compilation, I put the Swap back to 100Mb and Armory runs ok with about 150Mb of memory (no swap needed).
Swap increase on the Pi:
use your favourite editor, and open the file /etc/dphys-swapfile
add/change the following line:
Then, REBOOT the Pi:
sudo shutdown -h -P now
Once the compilation was done on the Pi, put the swap back, rebooted and created an Armory wallet.
I added manual entropy and upped the encryption 'time' from 250ms to 2500ms - since the Pi is slow, but I'll be happy to wait for more iterations in the Key Derivation Function.
Once the wallet was created, it obviously prompts you for backup.
I want to add a private key of my own (i.e. import), so don't do the backup until this is over.
I import my Private Key, and Armory checks that this corresponds to a Public Key, which I check is correct.
This is the point now where the Pi storage medium (e.g an SD card) has to be properly destroyed if you ever get rid of it.
I had thought that now would be a good time to decide if your new wallet will generate Segwit receiving addresses, and also addresses used to receive 'change' after a transaction..
But it seems Armory WON'T let you switch to P2SH-P2WPKH unless your Armory is connected to a node offering "WITNESS" service.
Obviously, my Pi is offline and will never connect to a node, so the following will not work on the Pi:
- x Use File Settings Fee and address types.
- x Set the "Preferred Receive Address Type" to P2SH-P2WPKH
- x Also Set the "Change Address" to P2SH-P2WPKH for left-over loose change!
NB: I thought about setting this on the Debian "watch-only" wallet, but that would surely mean doom, as the Pi would not know about those addresses and backups might not keep them.. who knows...
So, end result:- no segwit for me just yet in my offline funds.
--If anyone can offer a solution to this, I'd be very grateful--
Ok, now this is a good point to back up your wallet on the Pi. It has your imported keys. I choose a Digital Backup - and put it on a USB key, which will never touch the internet and will be stored off-site. I also chose to encrypt it, because I'm good with passwords..
NB: The Armory paper backup will NOT back up your imported private keys, so keep those somewhere if you're not sweeping them. It would be prudent to have an Armory paper backup anyway, but remember it will likely NOT help you with that imported key.
Now for the watch-only copy of the wallet. I want to get the "watch-only" version onto my Desktop Debian machine.
On the Pi, I created (exported to a USB key) a "watching-only" copy of my wallet.
I would use the RECOMMENDED approach, export the "Entire Wallet File".
As you will see below, I initially exported only the ROOT data, which will NOT capture the watching-only part of the Private Key I entered manually above (i.e. the public Key!).
Now, back on the Debian Desktop machine...
I stopped all my crontab jobs; just give Armory uninterrupted CPU/memory/disk...
I also stopped bitcoind and made a backup prior to any watch-only wallet being imported.
I already made a backup of Armory on my Desktop, before any wallet import.
(this was needed, as I made a mistake.. see below)
So on the Debian Desktop machine, I begin by firing up bitcoind.
my command for this is:
./bitcoind -daemon -datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414 -dbcache=400 -maxmempool=400
I try running Armory like this:
(I'm actually starting Armory from a script - StartArm.sh)
Inside the script StartArm.sh, it has the line:
python ArmoryQt.py --ram-usage=4 --satoshi-datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks --datadir=/ArmoryDataDi --dbdir=/ArmoryDataDidatabases
I know from bitter experience that doing a scan over the blockchain for a new wallet takes a looong time and a lot of CPU, and I'd like it to play nicely; not gobble all the memory and swap and run my 2xCPUs both at 100% for four hours...
So... I aim to run with --ram-usage=X and --thread-count=X
(For me in the end, X=1 but I began with X=4)
I began with --ram-usage=4 (<--- = 4x128Mb)
The result is below...
TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects
It didn't recognise the ram-usage and carried on, crippling my Debian desktop PC.
This is where it gets dangerous; Armory can gobble so much memory and CPU that the windowing environment can cease up, and it can take over 30 minutes just to exit nicely from bitcoind and ArmoryDB.
So, I ssh to the machine from another computer, and keep an eye on it with the command
I'd also be able to do a "sudo reboot now" if needed from here.
So, trying to get my --ram-usage command recognised, I tried this line (added quotes):
python ArmoryQt.py --ram-usage="4" --satoshi-datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks --datadir=/ArmoryDataDi --dbdir=/ArmoryDataDidatabases
But no, same error...
Loading Armory Engine: Armory Version: 0.96.4 Armory Build: None PyBtcWallet Version: 1.35 Detected Operating system: Linux OS Variant : ('debian', '9.4', '') User home-directory : /home/ Satoshi BTC directory : /BlockChain/chain20180414 Armory home dir : /ArmoryDataDi ArmoryDB directory : /ArmoryDataDidatabases Armory settings file : /ArmoryDataDiArmorySettings.txt Armory log file : /ArmoryDataDiarmorylog.txt Do wallet checking : True (ERROR) ArmoryUtils.py:3723 - Unsupported language specified. Defaulting to English (en) (ERROR) ArmoryQt.py:1833 - Failed to start Armory database: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects Traceback (most recent call last): File "ArmoryQt.py", line 1808, in startArmoryDBIfNecessary TheSDM.spawnDB(str(ARMORY_HOME_DIR), TheBDM.armoryDBDir) File "/BitcoinArmory/SDM.py", line 387, in spawnDB pargs.append('--ram-usage=' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE) TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects
So, I edit the Armory python file SDM.py:
if ARMORY_RAM_USAGE != -1: pargs.append('--ram-usage=4') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =4 # ' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE)
Running it, I now have acknowledgement of the --ram-usage=4:
(WARNING) SDM.py:400 - Spawning DB with command: /BitcoinArmory/ArmoryDB --db-type="DB_FULL" --cookie --satoshi-datadir="/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks" --datadir="/ArmoryDataDi" --dbdir="/ArmoryDataDidatabases" --ram-usage=4
Also, even with ram-usage=4, it used too much memory, so I told it to quit.
It took over 30 minutes to stop semi-nicely. The last thing it reported was:
ERROR - 00:25:21: (StringSockets.cpp:351) FcgiSocket::writeAndRead FcgiError: unexpected fcgi header version
But that didn't seem to matter or corrupt the Armory Database, so I think it's ok.
So, I get brave and change SDM.py as below, and I make sure my script has a command line for --ram-usage="ABCDE" and --thread-count="FGHIJ"; the logic being that these strings "ABCDE" will pass the IF criteria below, and my hardcoded values will be used...
if ARMORY_RAM_USAGE != -1: pargs.append('--ram-usage=1') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =1 # ' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE) if ARMORY_THREAD_COUNT != -1 pargs.append('--thread-count=1') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =1 #' + ARMORY_THREAD_COUNT)
So, as usual, I use my script and start this with: ./StartArm.sh
(which uses command line:)
python ArmoryQt.py --ram-usage="ABCDE" --thread-count="FGHIJ" --satoshi-datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks --datadir=/ArmoryDataDi --dbdir=/ArmoryDataDidatabases
(this forces it to use my hard-coded values in SDM.py...)
So, this is the command which it reports that it starts with:
(WARNING) SDM.py:400 - Spawning DB with command: /BitcoinArmory/ArmoryDB --db-type="DB_FULL" --cookie --satoshi-datadir="/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks" --datadir="/ArmoryDataDi" --dbdir="/ArmoryDataDidatabases" --ram-usage=1 --thread-count=1
Again, this is where it gets dangerous; Armory can gobble so much memory and CPU that the windowing environment can cease up. So I ssh to the machine and keep an eye on it with:
So, on the Debian Desktop PC, I inserted the USB stick with the watch-only wallet I exported from the Pi.
Import "Entire Wallet File" watch-only copy.
Wait 4 hours..
After running Armory for about 30m, the memory usage dropped by 400m... wierd...
It took ~2 hours to get 40% completion.
After 3.5 hours it's almost there...
The memory went up to about 1.7Gb in use and 900Mb of Swap, but the machine remained fairly responsive throughout, apart from a few (10?) periods at the start, where it appeared to freeze for 10-30s at a time.
(That's where my ssh session came in handy - I could check the machine was still ok with a "free -h" command)
Now, I can:
Create an unsigned transaction on my Desktop,
Save the tx to USB stick,
Move to the Pi,
Sign the tx,
Move back to the Desktop,
Broadcast the signed tx.
My initial Mistake:
This caused me to have to roll-back my Armory database, using the backup. so you should try to avoid doing this..
On the Pi, I exported only the ROOT data, which will NOT capture the watching-only part of the Private Key
It is RECOMMENDED to use the Digital Export of Entire Wallet File from the Pi when making a watch-only copy. If you just export just the "ROOT data", not the "Entire Wallet File", you'll have problems if you used an imported Private Key in the offline wallet, like I did.
Using the ROOT data text import, after it finished... my balance was zero. So,. I tried a Help->Rescan Balance (Restart Armory, takes 1minute to get back up and running) No Luck. Still zero balance.
So, I try Rescan Databases.. This will take longer. Nah.. no luck.
So, I tried again, thinking it might be to do with the fact that I imported the text "root data" stuff, instead of following the (Recommended) export of watching-wallet file.
So, I used my Armory backup, and wound back the ArmoryDataDi to the point before the install of the (zero balance) wallet. (you should not need to do this, as you will hopefully use the RECOMMENDED approach of exporting the "Entire Wallet File"!)
The Core Developers of Bitcoin released the 0.9.0 FINAL of Bitcoin Core (aka Bitcoin QT).
This is a Final Version, but its the same as 0.9.0rc3
Sources: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/releases http://sourceforge.net/projects/bitcoin/files/Bitcoin/bitcoin-0.9.0/ https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.9.0/README.txt
Bitcoin Core version 0.9.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.9.0/
This is a release candidate for a new major version. A major version brings both new features and bug fixes.
Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues
How to Upgrade
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), uninstall all earlier versions of Bitcoin, then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux).
If you are upgrading from version 0.7.2 or earlier, the first time you run 0.9.0 your blockchain files will be re-indexed, which will take anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours, depending on the speed of your machine.
On Windows, do not forget to uninstall all earlier versions of the Bitcoin client first, especially if you are switching to the 64-bit version.
Windows 64-bit installer
New in 0.9.0 is the Windows 64-bit version of the client. There have been frequent reports of users running out of virtual memory on 32-bit systems during the initial sync. Because of this it is recommended to install the 64-bit version if your system supports it.
NOTE: Release candidate 2 Windows binaries are not code-signed; use PGP and the SHA256SUMS.asc file to make sure your binaries are correct. In the final 0.9.0 release, Windows setup.exe binaries will be code-signed.
OSX 10.5 / 32-bit no longer supported
0.9.0 drops support for older Macs. The minimum requirements are now: * A 64-bit-capable CPU (see http://support.apple.com/kb/ht3696
); * Mac OS 10.6 or later (see https://support.apple.com/kb/ht1633
The 'chainstate' for this release is not always compatible with previous releases, so if you run 0.9 and then decide to switch back to a 0.8.x release you might get a blockchain validation error when starting the old release (due to 'pruned outputs' being omitted from the index of unspent transaction outputs).
Running the old release with the -reindex option will rebuild the chainstate data structures and correct the problem.
Also, the first time you run a 0.8.x release on a 0.9 wallet it will rescan the blockchain for missing spent coins, which will take a long time (tens of minutes on a typical machine).
Rebranding to Bitcoin Core
To reduce confusion between Bitcoin-the-network and Bitcoin-the-software we have renamed the reference client to Bitcoin Core.
Autotools build system
For 0.9.0 we switched to an autotools-based build system instead of individual (q)makefiles.
Using the standard "./autogen.sh; ./configure; make" to build Bitcoin-Qt and bitcoind makes it easier for experienced open source developers to contribute to the project.
Be sure to check doc/build-*.md for your platform before building from source.
Another change in the 0.9 release is moving away from the bitcoind executable functioning both as a server and as a RPC client. The RPC client functionality ("tell the running bitcoin daemon to do THIS") was split into a separate executable, 'bitcoin-cli'. The RPC client code will eventually be removed from bitcoind, but will be kept for backwards compatibility for a release or two.
The behavior of the walletpassphrase RPC when the wallet is already unlocked has changed between 0.8 and 0.9.
The 0.8 behavior of walletpassphrase is to fail when the wallet is already unlocked:
> walletpassphrase 1000 walletunlocktime = now + 1000 > walletpassphrase 10 Error: Wallet is already unlocked (old unlock time stays)
The new behavior of walletpassphrase is to set a new unlock time overriding the old one:
> walletpassphrase 1000 walletunlocktime = now + 1000 > walletpassphrase 10 walletunlocktime = now + 10 (overriding the old unlock time)
Transaction malleability-related fixes
This release contains a few fixes for transaction ID (TXID) malleability issues:
- -nospendzeroconfchange command-line option, to avoid spending zero-confirmation change
- IsStandard() transaction rules tightened to prevent relaying and mining of mutated transactions
- Additional information in listtransactions/gettransaction output to report wallet transactions that conflict with each other because they spend the same outputs.
- Bug fixes to the getbalance/listaccounts RPC commands, which would report incorrect balances for double-spent (or mutated) transactions.
- New option: -zapwallettxes to rebuild the wallet's transaction information
This release drops the default fee required to relay transactions across the network and for miners to consider the transaction in their blocks to 0.01mBTC per kilobyte.
Note that getting a transaction relayed across the network does NOT guarantee that the transaction will be accepted by a miner; by default, miners fill their blocks with 50 kilobytes of high-priority transactions, and then with 700 kilobytes of the highest-fee-per-kilobyte transactions.
The minimum relay/mining fee-per-kilobyte may be changed with the minrelaytxfee option. Note that previous releases incorrectly used the mintxfee setting to determine which low-priority transactions should be considered for inclusion in blocks.
The wallet code still uses a default fee for low-priority transactions of 0.1mBTC per kilobyte. During periods of heavy transaction volume, even this fee may not be enough to get transactions confirmed quickly; the mintxfee option may be used to override the default.
0.9.0 Release notes
- New notion of 'conflicted' transactions, reported as confirmations: -1
- 'listreceivedbyaddress' now provides tx ids
- Add raw transaction hex to 'gettransaction' output
- Updated help and tests for 'getreceivedby(account|address)'
- In 'getblock', accept 2nd 'verbose' parameter, similar to getrawtransaction, but defaulting to 1 for backward compatibility
- Add 'verifychain', to verify chain database at runtime
- Add 'dumpwallet' and 'importwallet' RPCs
- 'keypoolrefill' gains optional size parameter
- Add 'getbestblockhash', to return tip of best chain
- Add 'chainwork' (the total work done by all blocks since the genesis block) to 'getblock' output
- Make RPC password resistant to timing attacks
- Clarify help messages and add examples
- Add 'getrawchangeaddress' call for raw transaction change destinations
- Reject insanely high fees by default in 'sendrawtransaction'
- Add RPC call 'decodescript' to decode a hex-encoded transaction script
- Make 'validateaddress' provide redeemScript
- Add 'getnetworkhashps' to get the calculated network hashrate
- New RPC 'ping' command to request ping, new 'pingtime' and 'pingwait' fields in 'getpeerinfo' output
- Adding new 'addrlocal' field to 'getpeerinfo' output
- Add verbose boolean to 'getrawmempool'
- Add rpc command 'getunconfirmedbalance' to obtain total unconfirmed balance
- Explicitly ensure that wallet is unlocked in importprivkey
- Add check for valid keys in importprivkey
- New option: -nospendzeroconfchange to never spend unconfirmed change outputs
- New option: -zapwallettxes to rebuild the wallet's transaction information
- Rename option '-tor' to '-onion' to better reflect what it does
- Add '-disablewallet' mode to let bitcoind run entirely without wallet (when built with wallet)
- Update default '-rpcsslciphers' to include TLSv1.2
- make '-logtimestamps' default on and rework help-message
- RPC client option: '-rpcwait', to wait for server start
- Remove '-logtodebugger'
- Allow -noserver with bitcoind
Block-chain handling and storage:
- Update leveldb to 1.15
- Check for correct genesis (prevent cases where a datadir from the wrong network is accidentally loaded)
- Allow txindex to be removed and add a reindex dialog
- Log aborted block database rebuilds
- Store orphan blocks in serialized form, to save memory
- Limit the number of orphan blocks in memory to 750
- Fix non-standard disconnected transactions causing mempool orphans
- Add a new checkpoint at block 279,000
- Bug fixes and new regression tests to correctly compute the balance of wallets containing double-spent (or mutated) transactions
- Store key creation time. Calculate whole-wallet birthday.
- Optimize rescan to skip blocks prior to birthday
- Let user select wallet file with -wallet=foo.dat
- Consider generated coins mature at 101 instead of 120 blocks
- Improve wallet load time
- Don't count txins for priority to encourage sweeping
- Don't create empty transactions when reading a corrupted wallet
- Fix rescan to start from beginning after importprivkey
- Only create signatures with low S values
- Increase default -blockmaxsize/prioritysize to 750K/50K
- 'getblocktemplate' does not require a key to create a block template
- Mining code fee policy now matches relay fee policy
Protocol and network:
- Drop the fee required to relay a transaction to 0.01mBTC per kilobyte
- Send tx relay flag with version
- New 'reject' P2P message (BIP 0061, see https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/7079034 for draft)
- Dump addresses every 15 minutes instead of 10 seconds
- Relay OP_RETURN data TxOut as standard transaction type
- Remove CENT-output free transaction rule when relaying
- Lower maximum size for free transaction creation
- Send multiple inv messages if mempool.size > MAX_INV_SZ
- Split MIN_PROTO_VERSION into INIT_PROTO_VERSION and MIN_PEER_PROTO_VERSION
- Do not treat fFromMe transaction differently when broadcasting
- Process received messages one at a time without sleeping between messages
- Improve logging of failed connections
- Bump protocol version to 70002
- Add some additional logging to give extra network insight
- Added new DNS seed from bitcoinstats.com
- Log reason for non-standard transaction rejection
- Prune provably-unspendable outputs, and adapt consistency check for it.
- Detect any sufficiently long fork and add a warning
- Call the -alertnotify script when we see a long or invalid fork
- Fix multi-block reorg transaction resurrection
- Reject non-canonically-encoded serialization sizes
- Reject dust amounts during validation
- Accept nLockTime transactions that finalize in the next block
- Switch to autotools-based build system
- Build without wallet by passing --disable-wallet to configure, this removes the BerkeleyDB dependency
- Upgrade gitian dependencies (libpng, libz, libupnpc, boost, openssl) to more recent versions
- Windows 64-bit build support
- Solaris compatibility fixes
- Check integrity of gitian input source tarballs
- Enable full GCC Stack-smashing protection for all OSes
- Switch to Qt 5.2.0 for Windows build
- Add payment request (BIP 0070) support
- Improve options dialog
- Show transaction fee in new send confirmation dialog
- Add total balance in overview page
- Allow user to choose data directory on first start, when data directory is missing, or when the -choosedatadir option is passed
- Save and restore window positions
- Add vout index to transaction id in transactions details dialog
- Add network traffic graph in debug window
- Add open URI dialog
- Add Coin Control Features
- Improve receive coins workflow: make the 'Receive' tab into a form to request payments, and move historical address list functionality to File menu.
- Rebrand to Bitcoin Core
- Move initialization/shutdown to a thread. This prevents "Not responding" messages during startup. Also show a window during shutdown.
- Don't regenerate autostart link on every client startup
- Show and store message of normal bitcoin:URI
- Fix richtext detection hang issue on very old Qt versions
- OS X: Make use of the 10.8+ user notification center to display Growl-like notifications
- OS X: Added NSHighResolutionCapable flag to Info.plist for better font rendering on Retina displays.
- OS X: Fix bitcoin-qt startup crash when clicking dock icon
- Linux: Fix Gnome bitcoin: URI handler
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